object oriented data model

Their attributes are represented in ovals. Software developers have already figured it out; soon enough, DBAs will harness the strength of this powerful developing tool. In a object oriented database each element resembles a object from the object … The ODBMS which is an abbreviation for object oriented database management system, is the data model in which data is stored in form of objects, which are instances of classes. The semantic data model was developed by Michael Hammer and Dennis McLeod in 1981. Modeling the real world can be a complex process, and the current modeling techniques are not adequate to represent these increasingly complex problems. This ID, along with attributes and methods make up an objects state. VMS/VSAM is an example of a(n) ____. Companies preferred to stick with the applications they knew how to use, and had the greatest amount of technical support for. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Objects that have similar characteristics can be grouped into classes which contain information on data structure and method implementation. Objects are organized into classes of objects, and objects are associated with behaviors. These ID's are stored independently of object attributes. Data warehouses perform lots of big … Abstract. This object contains its own set of attributes and methods. In object-oriented model main construct is an object. These classes and objects together makes an object oriented data model. A noun in a business rule translates to a(n) _____ in the data model. cities, rivers), … In addition, they have their EMPLOYEE_ID, EMPLOYEE_TYPE and DEPARTMENT_ID attributes to identify them in the organization and their department. The data is represented and stored in the form of objects. This seems to make the most sense: using the OODBMS for situations that require high performance with complex data and RDBMSs for more traditional functions. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around objects rather than "actions" and data rather than logic. In turn, the OODM is the basis for the object-oriented database management system (OODBMS). This model is considered as a top down approach of designing a requirement. Different objects of Employee class are Engineer, Accountant, Manager and Clerk. Also we list what are the attributes related to each entity like student id, name, lecturer name, course that he is teaching, different subjects, pass mark, grade levels etc. As you learned in Chapters 2 and 3, a data model is an abstraction of the real world. Objects contain unique identifiers called object ID's. … It gives the clear understanding of how they are scattered and mapped. For several reasons, however, it has not caught on for any … The object-oriented data model was developed in the. Distributed Database Management System (DDBMS), https://databasemanagement.fandom.com/wiki/Object-Oriented_Database_Model?oldid=3643. Object-Oriented Data Modelling In this type of data modelling data is treated as object. network or relational) data … With the huge rise in use of XML as the backbone of web applications, this popular object modeling language with certainly be key to synchronizing online databases and applications using OODBMSs. A more efficient model is needed to do this and the semantic data model (SDM) can accomplish this real world representation. Because of its inheritance property, we can re-use the attributes and functionalities. It defines the mapping between the entities in the database. Data Models into Database Designs Database Redesign Managing Databases with Oracle ODBC, OLE DB, ADO, and ASP JDBC, Java Server Pages, and MySQL The Database Environment Modeling Data in the Organization Logical Database Design Advanced SQL The Internet Database Environment Data and Database Administration Object Oriented Data Modeling The Future of Object Oriented Database Modeling. A class i… They too have all the attributes what a person has. The ability to factor out common properties of several classes and form them into a super-class that can be shared with sub-classes can greatly reduce redundancy within system is regarded as one of the main advantages of object orientation. concepts in object-oriented modeling. Yes, it is clean and clear what a STUDENT database look like. The object, which encapsulates both state and behavior, is a more natural and realistic representation of real-world objects. OODBMS should be used when there is a business need, er tool in a developer’s toolbox that should be used when appropriate to maximize profit. An object is an item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data. We write two separate procedure sp_getAddress and sp_getPhone. In general terms, an object may be considered equivalent to an ER model’s entity. In the paper I will give an introduction to object-oriented data modeling, Association, generalization,and aggregation relationships; cardinalities and other types of constraints; polymorphism; andinheritance. In general terms, an object may be considered equivalent to an ER model’s entity. It is only in the last ten or fifteen years that companies are utilizing object oriented DBMSs (OODBMS). Extend existing object … Hence it is more understandable. In the paper I will give an introduction to object-oriented data modeling, Association, generalization,and aggregation relationships; cardinalities and other types of constraints; polymorphism; andinheritance. Hence it fails to put it in the database management systems. Historically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces output data. MySQL is an example of a(n) relational data model. The Object Oriented (OO) Data Model in DBMS. A key concept of any database system is the data model it is based upon. For example, we would create a person class and it will have name, address, age and phone as its attribute, and sp_getAddress and sp_getPhone as procedures in it. Increasingly complex real-world problems demonstrated a need for a data model that more closely represented the real world. True. For several reasons, however, it has not caught on for any major publicly traded organization. Here we can observe that the features of Person are available only if other class is inherited from it. Currently, say we need to have only these attributes and functionality. These data models are therefore intuitive and simple to use--the software will deal with user-oriented concepts like land parcels and easements, transformers and fuses, not system-oriented concepts like points, lines, and polygons. A simple ER diagram for above example can be drawn as below. As time passes, this perspective becomes more and more antiquated because object oriented programming has become the preferred technique used by developers (largely due to its superior efficiency and flexibility). This is why the semantic data model can be designated an object-oriented data model. Object oriented data model is based upon real world situations. The objects with similar functionalities are … Compound objects contain at least one attribute that references another object. An object-oriented data model … the Object oriented database models have been around since the seventies when the concept of object oriented programming was first explored. But all these employees belong to Person group. You can Crack Technical Interviews of Companies like Amazon, Google, LinkedIn, Facebook, PayPal, Flipkart, etc, Anisha was able to crack Amazon after practicing questions from TutorialCup, Queue based approach for first non-repeating…, Data Dictionary and Types of Data Dictionary. Database Management is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. We group the features of person together into class. Real-World Modeling: Object-oriented system tend to model the real world in a more complete fashion than do traditional methods. The ODBMS which is an abbreviation for object oriented database management system, is the data model in which data is stored in form of objects, which are instances of classes. Unlike models that are record-oriented, object-oriented values are solely objects. how the data is stored. concepts in object-oriented modeling. An object-oriented database (OODBMS) or object database management system (ODBMS) is a database that is based on object-oriented programming (OOP). An object can store all the relationships it has with other objects, including many-to-many relationships, and objects can be formed into complex objects that the traditional data models cannot cope with easily. • Attributes describe the properties of an object. More precisely, an object represents only one occurrence of an entity. In this way inheritance can take place, where superclass methods can be defined and then used in all subclass objects. The Object-Oriented Data Model A data model is a logic organization of the real world objects (entities), constraints on them, and the relationships among objects. It reduces the cost of maintaining the same data multiple times. We have to retrieve their department details, and hence we sp_getDeptDetails procedure. Object-Oriented Data Model: An Introduction Prior to this release, ArcInfo was solely based on the highly successful georelational data model. • Objects that share similar characteristics are grouped in classes. Imagine we have to design database for college. An object oriented database is a collection of objects defined by an object oriented data model. Object-oriented data models closely resemble the user's own view and classification of the things they study. Object oriented database models have been around since the seventies when the concept of object oriented programming was first explored. It is meant for high level designs. i.e. entity. Object Oriented Data Models This data model is another method of representing real world objects. No standard notations are available for ER diagram. So first thing that is done in … It is not a technology. What is Object Oriented Database. What is the real world entities involved with college? In addition it will have attributes EMPLOYEE_ID, EMPLOYEE_TYPE and DEPARTMENT_ID, and sp_getDeptDetails procedure. 1. A relational databases relies on the relational model, on the other hand a object database relies on the OOP. In the ____ model… Codes are re-used because of inheritance. The object-oriented modeling approach creates the union of the application and database development and transforms it into a unified data model and language environment. Because of the above feature, it becomes more flexible in the case of any changes. These situations are represented as objects, with different attributes. Object-oriented modeling (OOM) is the construction of objects using a collection of objects that contain stored values of the instance variables found within an object. This is one of the methods of representing ER model. PDF | LOOM (landslide object-oriented model) is here presented as a data structure for landslide inventories based on the object-oriented paradigm. Are you able to understand what are the entities involved, what are its attributes and their relations that we were discussing better here? Object based Data Models are based on above concept. It … • An object is an abstraction of a real-world entity. Person can have different attributes like name, address, age and phone. Within the database environment, a data model represents data structures with the purpose of supporting a specific problem domain. The object-oriented data model allows the 'real world' to be modeled more closely. Associative objects are used to show relationships between two or more objects. The OODBMS is based on three major components, namely: Object structure, Object classes, … 1980. Object-Oriented Data Modelling In this type of data modelling data is treated as object. An OODBMS is just another tool in a developer’s toolbox that should be used when appropriate to maximize profit. {Mathew, Fraser Town, 28, 5645677: sp_getAddress (Mathew), sp_getPhone (Mathew} forms another person object. Now, we will create another class called Employee which will inherit all the functionalities of Person class. As time passes, this perspective becomes more and more antiquated because object oriented programming has become the preferred technique used by developers (largely due to its superior efficiency and flexibility). Object oriented data … Hence a class has all the attributes and functionalities. An object data model is a data model based on object-oriented programming, associating methods (procedures) with objects that can benefit from class hierarchies. It is only visible to its objects and any inherited classes. It allows you to deal with the complexity inherent in a real-world problem Service Architecture- Other ODBMS Articles. Today companies are starting to catch on and integrate OODBMSs with their RDBMSs. What do we do if we want to get a person’s address and phone number? We cannot simplify for low level design like coding. Object-oriented data models (OODM) try to blend object-oriented concepts as they first emerged in programming languages with concepts from traditional (e.g. But do we do that? Hybrid objects contain repeating groups of attributes, one of which must reference another object. More details of this model are described in ER data model article. Hence it reduces the overhead and maintenance costs. It would be a black box to any other classes. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'tutorialcup_com-box-4','ezslot_6',622,'0','0']));This data model is another method of representing real world objects. One can covert ER diagrams into record based data model easily. It’s all depends upon the designer, how he draws it. We know only entities involved, their attributes and mapping at this stage. 10/17/2019 The Object Oriented (OO) Data Model in DBMS 2/7 The Components of the Object Oriented Data Model • An object is an abstraction of a real-world entity. The result can be a performance increase of ten to one thousand times while writing as little as 40% of the code (this is because it requires no intermediate language such as SQL; everything is programmed in the OO language of choice). Wait !!! It picks up each thing/object in the real world which is involved in the requirement.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'tutorialcup_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_5',620,'0','0'])); There are two types of object based data Models – Entity Relationship Model and Object oriented data model. It makes the requirement simple and easily understandable by representing simple diagrams. As in E-R model we have entities and in relational model, there are relations similarly we have objects in OO data modeling. Data modeling deals with the design and creation of your database structure, ie. Highly granular normalized relations (the relational model), or uniquely autonomous objects (the object model), can cause serious inefficiencies in a data warehouse. It is only in the last ten or fifteen years that companies are utilizing object oriented DBMSs (OODBMS). This code can be directly applied to a database, and thus saves time and money in development and maintenance. Object-oriented data models (OODM) try to blend object-oriented concepts as they first emerged in programming languages with concepts from traditional (e.g. Object oriented data modelling is different from relational database. All the entities are mapped using diamonds. The object-oriented data model was developed in the _____. Companies preferred to stick with the applications they knew how to use, and had the greatest amount of technical support for. Hence it is not accepted by the users. We can see each object as a real entity. A key concept of any database system is the data model it is based upon. It groups its related functionalities together and allows inheriting its functionality to other related sub-groups. Definition and Overview of ODBMS. The ability to store large amounts of structured and abstract data types is a major hurdle to overcome when using object-oriented databases. Object Oriented Model Object oriented data model is based on using real life scenarios. It maps entities like Student, Lecturer, Subjects, and Marks with each other to form the relation among them. Let us consider an Employee database to understand this model better. This feature of this model is called encapsulation. Primary keys of entities are underlined. It is designed using the entities in the real world, attributes of each entity and their relationship. For example, a PERSON object includes the attributes Name, Social Security Number, and Date of Birth. It binds the features in one class and hides it from other classes. Object-Oriented Languages Object-oriented concepts can be used in different ways Object-orientation can be used as a design tool, and be encoded into, for example, a relational database (analogous to modeling data … Objects are classified as simple, composite, compound, hybrid or associative. More precisely, an object represents only one occurrence of an entity. With the huge rise in use of XML as the backbone of web applications, this popular object modeling language with certainly be key to synchronizing online databases and applications using OODBMSs. Classes are then organized into a class hierarchy where superclasses are at the top and subclasses branch off to the bottom. Object oriented data model, along with the mapping between the entities, describes the state of each entity and the tasks performed by them. Develop novel database data model or data language (SIM) 2. Database, Object Oriented Database, Object Oriented Programming, Object Relational Database, Relational Model. It is an approach for solving the requirement. Web applications are an obvious exploitation of this because of the speed and flexibility of the object oriented approach. They are by far the best attempt developers have made at modeling real life. Object oriented database models have been around since the seventies when the concept of object oriented programming was first explored. An object-oriented database is a database that subscribes to a model with information represented by objects. Once all the entities are listed, we find out the relationship between them and try to map all of them. For several reasons, however, it has not caught on for any major publicly traded organization. The model is based on objects, rather than on data … What about all the employees above? In this model, the scenarios are represented as objects. OODBMS should be used when there is a business need, high performance required, and complex data is being used. There are many different forms of representation. Basically, ER model is a graphical representation of real world objects with their attributes and relationship. Oracle 11g is an example of a(n) XML/Hybrid data model. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'tutorialcup_com-banner-1','ezslot_9',623,'0','0']));Since all employees inherit the attributes and functionalities of Person, we can re-use those features in Employee. For several reasons, however, it has not caught on for any major publicly traded organization. The values for these attributes at any instance of time are object. There is great flexibility in the notation. An object oriented database can extend the existence of objects so that they are stored permanently. Abstract. ; {John, Troy, 25, 2453545 : sp_getAddress (John), sp_getPhone (John)} forms on person object. It is not widely developed and complete to use it in the database systems. Extend an existing database language with object-oriented capabilities. Data Models into Database Designs Database Redesign Managing Databases with Oracle ODBC, OLE DB, ADO, and ASP JDBC, Java Server Pages, and MySQL The Database Environment Modeling Data in the Organization Logical Database Design Advanced SQL The Internet Database Environment Data and Database Administration Object Oriented Data Modeling These … the Object oriented database models have been around since the seventies when the concept of object oriented programming was first explored. The object-based spatial model treats the world as surface littered with recognizable objects (e.g. In this database we have different types of employees – Engineer, Accountant, Manager, Clark. If we need any new feature we can easily add new class inherited from parent class and adds new features. Object-oriented databases represent data … They are college, Students, Lecturer, Course, Subject, Marks etc. The ID can not be changed and can only be deleted once the object is deleted. Simple objects contain only single value attributes and no attributes that refer to other objects. The major problem for OODBMSs was that relational DBMSs (RDBMS) were already implemented industry wide. Composite objects contain at least one multivalued attribute and no attributes that refer to other objects. The major problem for OODBMSs was that relational DBMSs (RDBMS) were already implemented industry wide. ER model represents the all these entities, attributes and their relationship in the form of picture to make the developer understand the system better. Object modeling deals with how the application interacts with the information received from an external source, e.g. ER data model is one of the important data model which forms the basis for the all the designs in the database world. file system data model. an end-user, a database, a web service, etc. The object-oriented approach offers even more expressive power than the EER model. An object-oriented database (OODB) stores data in objects. It makes the system easily understandable. Inheritance: Unlike Relational Databases, Object Relational Databases allow the use of inheritance. This geometry-centered model focuses on point, line, and … In the object oriented data model (OODM), both data and their relationships are contained in a single structure known as an object. Due to the object oriented nature of the database model, it is much simpler to approach a problem with these needs in terms of objects. Data Models into Database Designs Database Redesign Managing Databases with Oracle ODBC, OLE DB, ADO, and ASP JDBC, Java Server Pages, and MySQL The Database Environment Modeling Data in the Organization Logical Database Design Advanced SQL The Internet Database Environment Data and Database Administration Object Oriented Data Modeling A DB language is a concrete syntax for a … Consider the example above. Object-oriented databases are a niche offering in the relational database management system … Time will only tell whether OODBMSs will catch on in the main stream, but one would assume that it is only a matter of time before we capture the true power of object oriented systems. Since each class binds its attributes and its functionality, it is same as representing the real world object. Thus, “objects” are levels of abstraction that include attributes and behavior. As you learned in Chapters 2 and 3, a data model is an abstraction of the real … If we have missed any entities or attribute or the mapping, we can easily identify here. 1980s. Entities are represented as objects that contain both data and the relationships of those data. An object-based spatial database is a spatial database that stores the location as objects. Popular Object Databases. Object-oriented modeling … It also list attributes of each objects. Another useful characteristic of the object-oriented approach is that objects can also contain the operations or methods that can be performed on it. If we represent it in some tables, it would be difficult to identify this gap.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'tutorialcup_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_7',621,'0','0'])); In the below diagram, Entities or real world objects are represented in a rectangular box. (IRIS, O2 and VBASE/ONTOS extended SQL) 3. The object-oriented approach offers even more expressive power than the EER model. Also, these informations are encapsulated and, there is no fear being misused by other objects. All these object have multiple relationships between … Here is a list of some of the popular object databases and their features. It considers each object in the world as objects and isolates it from each other. It is only in the last ten or fifteen years that companies are utilizing object oriented DBMSs (OODBMS). Web applications are an obvious exploitation of this because of the speed and flexibility of the object oriented approach. Here we are not bothered about what data value is stored, what is the size of each data etc. It considers each object in the world as objects and isolates it from each other. (The object’s semantic content is defined through several of the items in this list.) OODBMSs allow new data types to be built from existing types. OODBMS are also called object databases or object-oriented database management systems. Therefore, … A Student object, for example, might contain data … Is stored, what are its attributes and no attributes that refer to other objects have missed entities. Covert ER diagrams into record based data model to a ( n ) relational model... Attributes that refer to other related sub-groups object contains its own set of attributes object oriented data model of. Made at modeling real life scenarios, what is the real world can be grouped into classes of objects with... Of each data etc relational data model is a collection of objects by! As simple, composite, compound, hybrid or associative the designs in the database world objects can contain... A class i… in object-oriented model main construct is an example of a real-world entity closely resemble the 's! Value is stored, what is the data model is an example of (! In general terms, an object represents only one occurrence of an entity the bottom was developed in the and. With different attributes like Name, Social Security Number, and … Abstract drawn as below object deals. Have been around since the seventies when the concept of object oriented approach if other class is inherited from.! Any instance of time are object with you and never miss a object oriented data model... Details of this powerful developing tool form the relation among them one occurrence of an entity the union the. Diagrams into record based data models ( OODM ) try to blend object-oriented as..., e.g Subjects, and … Abstract can accomplish this real world can be performed on.. Real entity actions that read or process the data model example of a ( n ) data. This database we have objects in OO data modeling as the actions that read process. That companies are utilizing object oriented data model: an Introduction Prior to release. Any entities or attribute or the mapping, we will create another class Employee... And behavior that takes input data, as well as the actions read! It into a unified data model that more closely objects ( e.g associated with behaviors it … object-oriented data (. Actions that read or process the data model that more closely database management systems with you and never a. Already implemented industry wide performance required, and thus saves time and money in development and.! Of real-world objects high performance required, and complex data is being used have missed entities... Data value is stored, what are its attributes and its functionality, it is only in the relational.. A program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data as. Are record-oriented, object-oriented values are solely objects object ’ s entity complete to use, complex. To an ER model is an object represents only one occurrence of an entity of some the. Extended SQL ) 3 inheriting its functionality, it has not caught on for any major publicly organization! Can not be changed and can only be deleted once the object oriented database can extend the existence of so. Attribute that references another object system is the data model is based upon real world.... Modeling techniques are not adequate to represent these increasingly complex problems the EER model key. Like Name, address, age and phone Number that are record-oriented, values... Date of Birth were discussing better here 2453545: sp_getAddress ( Mathew ), … an object-oriented database management …... Database world two or more objects companies preferred to stick with the applications they knew how to,... Database data model: an Introduction Prior to this release, ArcInfo was solely based on using real life.. Were discussing better here form the relation among them attributes that refer other. Oodm ) try to map all of them soon enough, DBAs will harness object oriented data model strength of powerful! Are its attributes and relationship of those data it ’ s entity implemented industry wide called object databases are only... Is same as representing the real world situations have similar characteristics can be black! Model easily performance required, and hence we sp_getDeptDetails procedure repeating groups attributes. Miss a beat model main construct is an example of a ( n ) relational data model data. Modelling data is treated as object never miss a beat more efficient model considered! Was solely based on using real life scenarios, EMPLOYEE_TYPE and DEPARTMENT_ID, and Date of Birth which! To understand this model, on the OOP it will have attributes EMPLOYEE_ID, EMPLOYEE_TYPE and DEPARTMENT_ID, and procedure!, object-oriented values are solely objects as objects and isolates it from other! The concept of object oriented data model from other classes contain only single value attributes and methods a complex,. Attribute or the mapping, we can observe that the features of person are available only if class! Mapping at this stage ) stores data in objects concepts as they first emerged in programming languages with concepts traditional! { Mathew, Fraser Town, 28, 5645677: sp_getAddress ( John,. Any major publicly traded organization object-oriented concepts as they first emerged in languages! Data structures with the information received from an external source, e.g database models have around! Name, Social Security Number object oriented data model and thus saves time and money in development and maintenance data. World objects with their RDBMSs model allows the 'real world ' to be modeled more closely represented the real.... Binds the features of person class this model are described in ER data model data., sp_getPhone ( Mathew ), … an object the designs in form! Of big … the object-oriented approach is that objects can also contain the operations or methods that be. Contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data is treated as object spatial... Support for inherited from object oriented data model class and hides it from other classes operations or methods can! Add new class inherited from parent class and hides it from each to... Allows the 'real world ' to be modeled more closely and 3, a data model represents data with... Object includes the attributes what a Student database look like around since the seventies the. Actions that read or process the data model was developed in the, and Date of Birth example!, object oriented data model: sp_getAddress ( Mathew ), sp_getPhone ( John ), sp_getPhone ( John }. Stored, what are its attributes and functionalities Troy, 25, 2453545: (! This object contains its own set of attributes, one of the object, which both! Relational databases relies object oriented data model the other hand a object database relies on the hand! Sp_Getaddress ( Mathew ), … the object-oriented data modelling data is represented and in... View and classification of the real world representation along with attributes and functionality this model. Powerful developing tool big … the object-oriented database ( OODB ) stores data in objects if! Or data language ( SIM ) 2 McLeod in 1981 simple objects contain at object oriented data model one multivalued and. Relational model, the scenarios are represented as objects that share similar characteristics can be designated an object-oriented management! Developed and complete to use, and objects together makes an object to map of. As well as the actions that read or process the data ; { John,,. It, and had the greatest amount of technical support for from other classes business! Simple ER diagram for above example can be performed on it becomes more flexible in the data model developed. Be considered equivalent to an ER model and objects are organized into of... Of an entity object-oriented modeling approach creates the union of the items in this way inheritance can take place where... Used when appropriate to maximize profit and language environment to stick with purpose. Database ( OODB ) stores data in objects • objects that share similar characteristics grouped... Database models have been around since the seventies when the concept of any database system is the size of data. In the last ten or fifteen years that companies are utilizing object oriented database models have been around since seventies., along with attributes and functionalities, it has not caught on for major. Process, and … Abstract are available only if other class is inherited from parent class adds! And Clerk oriented model object oriented DBMSs ( OODBMS ) which will all! These ID 's are stored permanently are available only if other class inherited. Designing a requirement be defined and then used in all subclass objects read or process the data represented!: sp_getAddress ( Mathew ), https: //databasemanagement.fandom.com/wiki/Object-Oriented_Database_Model? oldid=3643 each entity their! Oriented programming was first explored extend the existence of objects, and object oriented data model.! Its objects and any inherited classes any changes ( OO ) data … • an object oriented model! With their attributes and relationship the values for these attributes at any instance of time are object contain repeating of!, on the relational database this model, on the other hand a object database relies the! Now, we find out the relationship between them and try to blend object-oriented as. Between them and try to blend object-oriented concepts as they first emerged in programming languages with concepts traditional... Dennis McLeod in 1981 would be a black box to any other classes DEPARTMENT_ID to. Organized into a unified data model easily database to understand what are its attributes and mapping at this.... Or fifteen years that companies are starting to catch on and integrate OODBMSs with their attributes and no attributes refer! New features functionalities together and allows inheriting its functionality to other objects model construct... Development and transforms it into a unified data model easily realistic representation of world! A program has been viewed as a real entity s all depends the...

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